Automotive Glossary

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The SH-AWD (Super-Handling All-Wheel-Drive) system is the first and only all-wheel-drive platform that distributes the optimum amount of torque not only between the front and rear wheels but also between the left and right rear wheels. The result is precise cornering performance that provides incredibly neutral steering and outstanding vehicle stability.

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A turbocharger is an exhaust gas-driven compressor used to increase the power output of an internal-combustion engine by compressing air that is entering the engine thus increasing the amount of available oxygen. A key advantage of turbochargers is that they offer a considerable increase in engine power with only a slight increase in weight.

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Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is a NOx (nitrogen oxide and nitrogen dioxide) reduction technique used in most gasoline and diesel engines.

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An Engine Control Unit (ECU), also known as Engine Management System (EMS) is an electronic system, fundamentally a computer, that controls an internal combustion engine by reading several sensors in the engine and using the information to control its ignition systems

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A cold air intake is a system used to bring down the temperature of the air going into a car for the purpose of increasing the power of the internal-combustion engine. A secondary goal is to increase the appeal of a car by changing the appearance of a car’s engine bay and creating an attractive intake noise. These aftermarket parts come in many different colors and many different sizes, and are an inexpensive way to increase performance.

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An exhaust system conveys burnt gases from an internal combustion engine and typically includes a collection of pipes. In the most basic sense, the exhaust system simply vents waste gases from the engine. Depending on the overall system design, the exhaust gas may flow through a turbocharger to increase engine power, a catalytic converter to reduce air pollution, and a muffler to reduce noise.

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Nitrous is a slang term for nitrous oxide (N2O), commonly used by drag racing classes like Pro Street, Top Sportsman, and Pro Mod. Nitrous oxide is an oxidizing agent used to increase an engine’s power output by allowing for faster burning of a fuel (usually gasoline). Nitrous can be used with alcohol in the mud racing categories.

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The camshaft is an apparatus used in piston engines to operate poppet valves. It consists of a cylindrical rod running the length of the cylinder bank with a number of oblong lobes or cams protruding from it, one for each valve. The cams force the valves open by pressing on the valve, or on some intermediate mechanism, as they rotate.

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The carburetor, carburettor, or carburetter also called carb (in North America) or carbie (chiefly in Australia) for short, is a device that mixes air and fuel for an internal combustion engine. It was invented by Hungarian scientists Donát Bánki and János Csonka in 1893. Carburetors are still found in small engines and in older or specialized automobiles such as those designed for stock car racing. However, fuel injection, first introduced in the late 1950s and first successfully commercialized in the early 1970s, is now the preferred method of automotive fuel delivery. The majority of motorcycles still are carburated due to lower weight and cost, but as of 2005 many new models are now being introduced with fuel injection.

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The Direct-Shift Gearbox (Direktschaltgetriebe) is a dual-clutch gearbox designed by BorgWarner and initially licenced to Volkswagen Volkswagen Group (which owns the Volkswagen, Audi, SEAT, Bentley Bentley , Bugatti Bugatti , Lamborghini Lamborghini , and Škoda brands). By using two clutches, fast shifts can be achieved, and the torque converter of a regular automatic transmission is eliminated.


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