The young Red Bull driver started the day in third in the table, but managed to lead from pole for nearly the entire race, becoming the youngest driver to win the title.
The final race of the season that took place under the setting of the Middle Eastern sun was a great finale to what could have been the first season in F1 history, not to mention the best ever season for Red Bull, who took the constructors title last weekend.
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"I’m a bit stressed to be honest, I don’t know what I’m supposed to say," Vettel, who had not previously led this season’s championship, told BBC Sport.
"It’s been an incredible year, we’ve always kept believing in the team, and the car, and I have kept believing in myself.
"I’m speechless! The car was phenomenal. The start was crucial, and it was very tight with Lewis, but after that it settled down."
When he arrived at the track, Alonso knew what needed to be done. The Spaniard had to finish in the top four in order to ensure his third championship if Vettel won and he needed to finish on the podium if Webber were to win.
Webber came into the pits early, putting him behind Sebastian Buemi, Vitaly Petrov, and Nico Rosberg. Ferrari went to cover this stop with a stop of their own, placing Alonso behind Petrov and Rosberg and neither driver could recover.
Vettel started the race from pole and nearly got into it with Hamilton at the first corner, but he managed to clear the McLaren down the straight. Button managed to get a brilliant start and took third from Alonso.
Four laps into the race, Michael Schumacher and Vitantonio Liuzzi collided at Turn Six, a wreck that saw the Force India climb up onto the Mercedes.
After the race was restarted, Vettel got away from Hamilton and Webber struggled for pace, finding himself being pressured by Felipe Massa, rather than pressuring Alonso.
After Webber pitted and found himself behind traffic, some of which had already pitted for tires, Alonso followed suit and wound up in the same unfortunate situation, unable to get around the slower cars.
While those two were fighting with the young Russian, Vettel was dominating and with a brilliantly executed pitstop, found himself in prime position to take the win.
Lap after lap, Vettel pushed on, while Alonso and Webber failed to get passed the Renault. During the last few laps, Alonso pushed harder and harder, occasionally going off the track, but it just wasn’t to be.
Vettel crossed the line in the first and the party began in the Red Bull garage.