V-type engines, In-line engine, Flat-engines, rotary or electrical engines... You know them all, you know how they look, that they do, what’s their power, which maker what use. But do you know how it all started? When it all started?
How it all started...
It all started back in 1506 when no one else than Leonardo da Vinci described a compression-less engine -his description may not imply that the idea was original with him or that it was actually buil. The same thing was done a sentury and a half latter, in 1673 by Christiaan Huygens. In 1794, Robert Street built a compression-less engine whose principle of operation would dominate for nearly a century. English inventor Sir Samuel Morland used gunpowder to drive water pumps in the 17th century.
The first internal combustion engine to be Applied industrially was patented by Samual Brown in 1823. It was based on what Hardenberg calls the "Leonardo cycle", which, as this name implies, was already out of date at that time. The Italians Eugenio Barsanti and Felice Matteucci patented the first working, efficient internal combustion engine in 1854 in London but did not get into production with it.
In 1860, Etienne Lenoir produced a gas-fired internal combustion engine not dissimilar in appearance to a steam beam engine. This closely resembled a horizontal double acting steam engine, with cylinders, pistons, connecting-rods and fly wheel in which the gas essentially took the place of the steam. This was the first internal combustion engine to be produced in numbers. The American Samuel Morey received a patent on April 1, 1826 for a "Gas Or Vapor Engine".
In 1862 Nikolaus Otto designed an indirect-acting free-piston compression-less engine whose greater efficiency won the support of Langen and then most of the market, which at that time, was mostly for small stationary engines fueled by lighting gas. Then, in 1876 working with Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach developed a practical four-stroke cycle (Otto cycle) engine. The German courts, however, did not hold his patent to cover all in-cylinder compression engines or even the four stroke cycle, and after this decision in-cylinder compression became universal.
More than 250 years of the "engine history" have passed untill Karl Benz, 1879, developed an internal combustion engine based on Nikolaus Otto’s design of the four-stroke engine. Later Benz designed and built his own four-stroke engine that was used in his automobiles, which became the first automobiles in production. After 18 years, in 1896 he invented the boxer engine, also known as the horizontally opposed engine, in which the corresponding pistons reach top dead centre at the same time, thus balancing each other in momentum.
Internal combustion engine
The internal combustion engine is a heat engine in which the burning of a fuel occurs in a confined space called a combustion chamber. This exothermic reaction of a fuel with an oxidizer creates gases of high temperature and pressure, which are permitted to expand. The defining feature of an internal combustion engine is that useful work is performed by the expanding hot gases acting directly to cause movement, for example by acting on pistons, rotors, or even by pressing on and moving the entire engine itself.
The internal combustion engine was invnented by Jean Joseph Etienne Lenoir. Lenoir made the first internal combustion engine that provides a reliable and continuous source of power, which was the gas engine using coal gas, in 1860, in France.
The first practical internal combustion engine based heavily on experience from the production of steam engines. The engine had a horizontal cylinder; slide valves were used to draw in the fuel-air mixture; and it was double acting, the mixture being fed into the cylinder alternately at either end of the piston. Once it is in the cylinder the mixture was ignited by electric sparks generated at spark plugs by a coil and a battery. This ignition system, a primitive ancestor of modern electric ignition, was unreliable.
Because the first internal combustion engine was unreliable, many later pioneers made improvements of the first internal combustion engine. As a result many new engines were made. Such engines were the two and four stroke engine and the petrol engine. Siegfried Marcus in Austria in 1864 was able to create an engine that uses petrol as a fuel. The first internal combustion engine is the basic form for modern car engines.
A V engine is a common configuration for an internal combustion engine. The pistons are aligned so that they appear to be in a V when viewed along the line of the crankshaft. The V configuration reduces the overall engine length and weight compared to an equivalent straight engine.
The first V-engine was invented by Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach in 1888. It was the first time that it was actually possible to give a measure for the angel between the cylinders - in this case it was just 17. The engine had 1050 cc and managed 4 bhp at 900 1/min.
A V4 engine is a a V form engine with four cylinders. It was first used by Lancia starting 1922 through 1960. It was a narrow-angle aluminum design. All three displacements shared the same long 120 mm stroke, and all were SOHC designs with a single camshaft serving both banks of cylinders.
Two totally diferent engines were produced by Ford of Europe: one was the V4 engine used in the british Ford Essex and the second one the V4 engine of the german Ford Taunus. The first one was available in two capacities: 1633cc and 1996cc, differing only in stroke. The second one was a V4 piston engine with one balance shaft, introduced by Ford Motor Company in Germany in 1962. Later it was later expanded into the Ford Cologne V6 engine that is used in the Ford Capri and many other Ford cars. The Taunus V4 was replaced by the Ford OHC/Pinto engine.
A V6 is an internal combustion piston engine with six cylinders in a "V" configuration. It is the second most common engine configuration in modern cars after the inline-4; it shares with that engine a compactness very suited to the popular front wheel drive layout, and is becoming more popular as car weights increase.
The first V6 was introduced by Lancia on the 1924 Lancia Lambda, but it made little impact. The design was reintroduced by the company in 1950 with the Lancia Aurelia; this time, other manufacturers took note and soon other V6 engines were in use. The design really took off after the 1962 introduction of the Buick Special. Though the model was not a spectacular success, it was the first mass-produced V6 engine. In 1983 Nissan produced Japan’s first V6 engine with the VG series.
A V8 engine is a V engine with eight cylinders. The V8 is a very common configuration for large automobile engines. V8 engines are rarely less than 4 L in displacement and in automobile use have gone up to 8.5 L or so.
The first engine was a british one, developed by Rolls Royce: a 3.5 L Rolls-Royce Legalimit. But Cadillac was the first automobile maker to mass produce a V8 engine. The company has produced eight generations of V8s since 1914. The Type 51 was the first Cadillac V8. Introduced in 1914, it was the standard engine for 1915 Cadillac models. One significant innovation with the 70-horsepower, 314-cubic-inch (5.1 liter) L-head design was the thermostatic control of cooling-water circulation. The engine, multi-plate clutch and gearbox were combined in one bolted-together assembly. The United States War Department purchased over 2,000 standard Cadillac V8 models for use in Europe during World War I.
The V-8 engine was developed by France’s renowned auto maker, Count De Dion Bouton, so although it came as a distinct innovation in a stock American car, the principle was not a new one. Cadillac ’s new V-8 engine was actually shorter and 60 lbs lighter than the four-cylinder motor that preceded it. Its high torque allowed speeds up to 55-60mph to be achieved in high gear. Quick acceleration was another benefit of the new 314 cubic inch motor rated at 31.25HP (SAE); dynamometer tests produced 70HP at 2,400 rpm. Other features of the new power plant include thermostatic control of the coolant temperature, forced-feed lubrication through a gear pump at the front of the motor, a gearbox attached to the motor rather than mounted amidships, as before, and a floating rear axle with worm bevel gears replacing the former straight bevels.
The engine was refined for 1923 with a new split crankshaft that introduced the (now standard) 90° offset for each pair of cylinders. Power was up to 83.5 hp. The L-Head was on the Ward’s 10 Best Engines of the 20th Century list.
Cadillac created a new V8, the 341, for 1928. It was a 341 in³ engine and produced 90 hp. The same year saw the introduction of the synchromesh transmission. This engine was used in the Series 341 and 341B cars of 1928 and 1929. From 1930 through 1935, Cadillac produced a version with an increased displacement of 5.8 L. This used a 3.38 in (85.7 mm) bore and 4.94 in (125.4 mm) stroke.
A V10 engine is a V engine with 10 cylinders in two banks of five. The V10 configuration is not an inherently balanced design like an Inline6/V12. It can be balanced with crankshaft counterweights as a odd firing 90 degree Vee engine (BMW M5, Dodge Viper). It can be balanced with a balance shaft as an even firing 72 degree engine, or with a split crankshaft journal 90 degree Vee angle (Lamborghini Gallardo, Ford 6.8 V10).
Until recently V10s had rarely been a popular configuration for road cars: a V12 is only slightly more complicated and runs more smoothly and a V8 is less complex and more economical. The V10 engine was used starting 1994 in the Dodge Ram.
A V12 engine is a V engine with 12 cylinders. Like a straight-6, this configuration has perfect primary and secondary balance no matter which V angle is used and therefore needs no balance shafts.
The first V12 engine was used in 1912 in Packard’s "Double Six", but before the World War II the engine was used in a lot of luxury cars: Cadillac, Packard, Lincoln, Franklin, Rolls-Royce, and Hispano-Suiza.
After the World War II the type lost favor in the United States, where the V8 engine became ubiquitous. Italian sports cars from such makers as Ferrari and Lamborghini used the V12 almost exclusively on their highest-performance vehicles, while Jaguar developed a V12 that was put into production in 1971 and lasted until 1997. Ferrari ’s newest V12 (used in the 599) is based on the Ferrari Enzo’s, while the company’s flat 12 engine is really a 180° V12.