The all-new Toyota RAV4 will set new benchmarks in the compact Sports Utility Vehicle segment with the introduction of premium levels of driving performance, quality, passenger comfort and equipment to this market.
The new RAV4 is the third generation of a model that is a best seller in Europe and a worldwide success for Toyota. At launch, in 1994, the Toyota RAV4 established the popularity of compact sports utility vehicles and more than 1.8 million RAV4s have been sold since then.
More than 655,000 RAV4s have been sold in Europe alone (by end-year ’05). The RAV4 has been completely redesigned for 2006, taking into account modern customer expectations. Its primary role will be to confirm Toyota as the leading carmaker in the SUVcompact segment.
Creating a new trend in SUV
- A new style of vehicle at launch in 1994: fashionable and fun
- An instant sales success and attracting new customers to Toyota
- RAV4 third generation, to set new benchmarks for product quality and driving performance
The Toyota RAV4 has taken its place, quite rightly, in the history of modern automotive design as the vehicle that launched the popularity of the compact SUV segment. When RAV4 was launched, back in 1994, its unique blend of rugged good looks, off-road capability and onroad performance set the scene for a whole generation.
For the first time, customers growing out of their traditional C-segment hatchbacks could enjoy the performance of a compact passenger car and explore the new world of off-road excitement with a Sports Utility. The new RAV4 was fashionable… and fun.
This heritage was recognised by the team responsible for the latest, third generation Toyota RAV4.“The RAV4 is a unique compact SUV that offers our customers a fun driving experience on all types of roads,” says Kiyotaka Ise, Executive Chief Engineer for this new model. “SUVs attract people because they are out of the ordinary – definitely different from the average passenger vehicle. The next generation RAV4 had to carry on this extraordinary flair.”
- A concept born in 1989
- Recreational Active Vehicle with 4 wheel-Drive, RAV4, first launched in 1994
- Fully revised in 2000
For a car that would transform the SUV market, the RAV4 was a long time coming. The initial briefings were first discussed within Toyota in 1986 and a concept then appeared at the Tokyo Motor Show in 1989. But it was not until the Geneva Show in 1994 that the first, production ready model was revealed.
The first Recreational Active Vehicle with 4 Wheel-Drive (RAV4) went on sale in Japan in May 1994 and in Europe in June that year. Initial production estimates were 4,500 sales a month. But, when 8,000 orders were received in the first month, production volumes were doubled.
RAV4 3dr (1994)
Chief Engineer of the first generation, M. Nonaka, said at the time: “Looking back over the development of this car, I now feel the toughest part was getting it all started. I strongly feel we’ve got the product to meet the needs of young and youthful customers looking for the diversity the RAV4 offers.” Nonaka defined the attributes of the RAV4:
1: Fun, personal and sporty design
2: Outstanding driving performance
3: Looks and specifications developed for ‘fun’ and summed the vehicle up as “civilised excitement”.
Those attributes remain as true today as they did in 1994 but in a more mature and refined execution.The first generation RAV4 continued largely unchanged but continually refined until 2000 when it was completely redesigned to take account of the more sophisticated and competitive compact SUV market. The new model was roomier, sportier and more versatile with increased length and wheelbase.
RAV4 3 & 5 dr (2000)
At the same time, the second generation RAV4 was given a more aerodynamic but more aggressive style. Product quality and interior packaging were developed to take account of improved engineering standards and greater customer expectations; thus ensuring that Toyota RAV4 remained at the top of the compact SUV sales table.
The introduction of new D-4D diesel engines for Europe at the end of 2001 gave sales a further boost.
A sales success
- Worldwide sales success
- Best selling SUV ever built
- Best selling SUV in Europe
The Toyota RAV4 is the best selling compact SUV ever built (more than 1,835, 000 models sold worldide to end of 2004) and continues to be a success throughout world markets. The two major markets for RAV4 have been the USA and Europe – where just under 30% of all RAV4 sales have been achieved.
The Toyota RAV4 is the best selling SUV model in Europe and, as already indicated, sales volumes continue to grow despite the present generation now being in the fifth year of its product cycle. In full year 2004, RAV4 took 26% of the compact SUV sales in Europe with just over 109,000 units, despite the increasing competitive market place in which it now sells.
In 2005 (to-date) RAV4 sales have accounted for 21% of all compact SUV sales in Europe. It has to be remembered that compact SUV sales have themselves grown by over 300% in Europe in the last 10 years – much of it fuelled by the success of RAV4. Total RAV4 sales in Europe to date have been up to 655,000 units.
The new challenge
- To maintain best selling status
- To set new benchmarks for product quality and driving performance
- To enter the premium compact SUV segment
The all-new Toyota RAV4 has the clear task of maintaining its position as the market leading compact SUV in Europe while setting new benchmarks for product quality, driving performance, technology and customer benefits in the sector. You could say: “the new RAV4 has more RAV-ness”.
It consolidates its position as a performance driving package with its Integrated Active Drive System, enhanced diesel engines and a new six-speed manual gearbox. At the same time, it exceeds customer expectations with its highly efficient package and modularity – featuring increased interior space and unique Toyota Easy Flat seating system.
In addition this third generation RAV4, through the RAV4 X flagship model, will be challenging the emerging premium compact SUV sub-segment which is predicted to grow to almost double current volumes by 2007.
While retaining its SUV style, the new Toyota RAV4 crosses over into other vehicle segments to offer premium quality passenger car characteristics, MPV-style modularity and wagon (estate)- style interior space.
Toyota customers are confident and assured in their lifestyle choices. RAV4 owners see themselves as progressive, wanting to stand out from the crowd and “ahead of the curve” in terms of their car buying choice. The new RAV4 will reinforce that perception with its advanced styling and technology.
The primary target for the new RAV4 will be well educated young families in the 35 to 45-year old bracket. But, as before, RAV4 will also appeal to youthful ‘empty-nesters’ who maintain an active, urban lifestyle. These affluent customers are likely to be in the 55 to 65 year old bracket.
The all-new RAV4 will go on sale across Europe from February 2006 with a sales target of around 100,000 units in a full year. “The launch of our first Recreational Active Vehicle with 4 wheel-Drive (RAV4) in 1994 created one of the most dynamic trends in the automotive industry in recent years,” says Andrea Formica, vice-president sales & marketing, Toyota Motor Marketing Europe. “This success story has strongly contributed to Toyota’s image in Europe. Today, with a unique blend of technology, versatility and quality, the all-new third generation RAV4 will once again reset the standards it established a decade ago; redefining customers’ expectations.”
- Rugged and modern design theme
- Superior perceived quality throughout
- Compact outside, big inside
- Maximum modularity for families
- Premium equipment levels
Each generation of RAV4 has followed the same ground-breaking design cues that created the compact SUV market – combining versatility, design and outstanding driving dynamics.
The all-new third generation Toyota RAV4 continues this pioneering spirit but, in response to modern customer demands, adds significantly more premium quality, increased interior space and an intelligent, flexible interior package.
The all-new Toyota RAV4 has been created within the context of Toyota’s ‘Vibrant Clarity’ design philosophy and the elements of ‘dynamic’ and ‘clear’ forms should be viewed in this context. There is a clarity to the design, created by reducing the number of elements while increasing the size of each individual element. The trapezoidal grille provides a common thread of identity with other models in the Toyota SUV range and differentiates them from the core saloon models.
Executive Chief Engineer, Kiyotaka Ise explains: “Design sketches were used to gauge the reaction of customers from countries all over the world. This feedback led us to adopt ‘Modern Rugged’ as our design theme. Focusing on this theme, we sculpted a stylish yet rugged design.”
Distinctive exterior styling
- Styling cues from previous generations
- Increased length and width
- Strong premium quality
- Compact outside, big inside
The new RAV4 inherits and develops the strong brand DNA that continues to be recognisable to customers across the world. But, with the combination of a space-efficient box shape and more stylish, round form the new RAV4 manages to distinguish itself from other SUVs.
The cabin’s distinctive silhouette shows a strong arc blending with the wedge-shape of the fender areas which extends down to the doors. Its wedged lower-body design suggests agile driving performance on winding roads, while the dynamic fender shape emphasises a stance for stability under straight-line acceleration.
The new RAV4 sits squat on the road with strong posture, bold sides and a wide track. The sharp cuts around the rear remind one of the ‘vibrant’ theme. “In terms of the exterior design, we aggressively sought a powerful, modern look that would catch the eyes of passers-by.” says Kiyotaka Ise, Executive Chief Engineer. “For this reason, large wheels were placed prominently in the four corners, emphasizing the powerful nature of the SUV with a strong and chunky frame. By giving the panel design a sophisticated, high-quality feel, we blended a modern look with refinement.”
The excellent aerodynamics of the new RAV4 are clearly demonstrated by its low drag co-efficient (0.31Cd) which is the best in this segment. Smooth airflow around the car contributes to better fuel consumption, quiet running at high speeds and enhanced stability.
The new Toyota RAV4 is 145 mm longer (4,395mm – 4315mm without backdoor spare wheel) than the current generation, with a significantly increased wheelbase (+70 mm) and rear overhang. This allows greatly improved passenger comfort; the cabin length (1,820mm) has been increased by 85mm with the couple distance between front and rear seats increased by 55 mm.
The width is also increased (by 80mm) and increased shoulder space allows the front seats to be set further apart, again improving comfort. Height remains below that of many competitors, emphasising the sleek, squat styling and premium passenger car driving performance of the RAV4. But the rear seat headroom has been improved, allowing the new RAV4 to seat five adults in comfort.
And, despite the lengthened wheelbase, a lower turning circle of 5.1 meters has been achieved – well below many rival vehicles.
Premium interior design and ingenious package
- Premium quality interior design
- Open and spacious feeling
The precision of the interior structure underlines the premium quality of the new RAV4. The elimination of any break lines, the tight panel gaps and the matching of surface levels all contribute to the perceived quality of the vehicle and are a tribute to its engineering excellence.
“We particularly aimed for an interior design that should be typical of an SUV, yet have a premium feel,” explains Kiyotaka Ise. “We placed a vertical column in the centre of the instrument panel to emphasize the powerful nature of the SUV and gave the instrument panel a two-level winged shape for a premium feel. In addition, the superior quality feel is further enhanced by using high quality materials and tight panel fit throughout.”
There are angular design cues in the interior which reflect the Vibrant Clarity theme. The cross-section of the dashboard and the door trim panels has been emphasised to create a more open and spacious feel. The three-dimensional nature of the door architecture, with unique boomerang shapes, creates a feeling of sportiness.
The increased exterior dimensions and significantly improved overall packaging both contribute to the spacious, quality environment which passengers enjoy inside the new RAV4.
The interior volume has been increased to 3,822 litres, an increase of 13% on the outgoing model. This is most noticeable in the luggage compartment, the rear passenger headroom and the shoulder room.
The newly developed rear suspension with the shock absorbers positioned diagonally under the floor results in a 230mm increase in the luggage room width. This dramatically enhances the usefulness of the luggage space (up 47%).
Practical, flexible interior
- Unique Toyota Easy Flat seating
- Flexible luggage and storage space
- Numerous comfort and convenience features
Customers for the Toyota RAV4 enjoy an active lifestyle, often needing to adapt their vehicle to the demands of a growing family. Here the new RAV4 will offer a unique feature that most clearly expresses its practicality and modularity: the Toyota Easy Flat seating system.
Using one of two one-touch levers, easily accessible from the rear tailgate, the rear seats can be folded down into the rear floor space to leave an ‘easy-flat‘ luggage space without the need to remove any seat cushions or headrests.
The rear seats can also split (60:40) for maximum flexibility and can recline on an individual basis. They can slide backwards and forwards over 165mm to greatly enhance passenger comfort or increase luggage capacity. The flat boot floor also offers additional, underfloor storage space for increased security – and the rear luggage cover can be stowed here when not in use.
With the Easy Flat seat system folded the new RAV4 has a luggage capacity of 1,469 litres, easily accessible through the wide-opening rear door and with flat loading. Further practicality is emphasised by the numerous convenience features found within the passenger cabin. They include the upper and lower glove-box design – with a glove-box cooler to maintain lower temperatures; the generous door pockets with bottle holders;the mobile phone holder in the centre console (Bluetooth compatibility on selected audio equipment); and enlarged, illuminated cupholders.
For rear seat passengers, the centre armrest contains two cupholders for stable storage of drinks. Foot lighting is available for front seat passengers on selected models.
Premium equipment levels
- Hi-tech analogue meters
- Six language multi-information display
- Air conditioning as standard
- Full map, DVD navigation available
The new Toyota RAV4 emphasises its premium quality with the equipment levels that will be standard throughout the range and the options that allow each customer to choose his or her own comfort levels.
The three, hi-tech analogue Optitron meters dominate the instrument panel and give a premium, sporty image. The combination meter lights illuminate in series, from the ignition ON to the indicator light, to the multi-information display, and then to the meter dials. This sequenced illumination and the adoption of amber graduated illumination in the center of the dials creates a feel of sophistication.
A liquid crystal multi-information display in the centre of the speedometer shows the odometer/tripmeter, outside temperature, driving monitor, and varivous warnings. The multiinformation display offers a wide range of customisable function setting options including six languages1 and metric or imperial units.
The audio, air conditioning and navigation systems are housed within the bold centre console which features a brushed-metallic finish for optimum quality. Standard equipment on all models includes air-conditioning (manual or dual automatic on high grade) and a six-speaker radio/CD unit (with 6 CD-changer on high grade) which has been adapted for MP3 file playback.
A dual-zone, fully automatic climate control system, with adjustable pollen removal, is available while many owners will want to upgrade to the full map DVD navigation system with Bluetooth compatibility and touch screen.
This newly developed system offers a number of premium user-friendly features including ‘Michelin’ style mapping for easy recognition; voice activation in English, German and French; and voice guidance in ten European languages2 , including Norwegian and Portuguese. The system also offers city lane guidance for selected cities in Europe – a unique feature to this unit.
Hi-tech features which enhance the premium quality of the new RAV4 also include:
Smart entry & start system: allowing keyless entry to front and rear doors, luggage compartment and press-button engine start.
Rain-sensing wipers: windscreen mounted raindrop sensor activates wipers to suit weather conditions
Dusk sensor: automatic activation of headlamps as dusk falls or at other times of limited visibility
Rear parking camera: clear view of the rear of the car for safer, more accurate parking
The new RAV4 X represents the ultimate incarnation of the third generation Toyota RAV4 and is set to become the flagship of the range. The launch of the RAV4 X will challenge premium contenders in the compact SUV market and open up this emerging segment to Toyota – sales in the European premium compact SUV segment are forecast to increase from 46,000 units in 2004 to up to 75,000 units by 2007.
The launch of the RAV4 X is possible because of the premium quality and active driving performance now available throughout the new RAV4 range. The unique combination of intelligent package (compact outside yet roomy inside), high degree of modularity, advanced technology driving controls (Integrated Active Drive System) and RAV4 X’s exclusive design and premium equipment means that the Toyota RAV4 is now capable of meeting and exceeding the expectations of premium brand customers.
The RAV4 X will offer exclusive equipment in combination with the high performance D-4D 180 diesel engine, the most powerful diesel engine in the segment, and a six-speed manual gearbox. Top speed is 200 km/h and the RAV4 X will accelerate from 0 to 100km/h in 9.3 seconds.
Unique exterior styling
The RAV4 X will be instantly recognisable thanks to its unique and striking exterior styling to create a premium look. The RAV4 X will be the only model in the range not to carry the spare wheel on the back door – it will be equipped with run-flat tyres and an advanced tyre pressure monitoring system.
The RAV4 X will have a dedicated front grille and its sports credentials will be enhanced by over-fenders and exclusive 18-inch alloy wheels. Tinted privacy glass will add to the premium look which is offset by the darkened headlamps. The RAV4 X will have its own exclusive exterior colour: an new dark metallic green.
Premium equipment standard
The RAV4 X has an extensive range of premium equipment. This includes leather seats which are heated and power controlled; a smart entry and start system; cruise control; rain sensing wipers and a dusk sensing headlamp control. Electro-chromatic mirrors, which automatically dim when hit by bright lights, are also standard equipment.As a result of this extensive standard equipment list, the only options available on RAV4 X will be the full-map navigation system with Bluetooth compatibility, a parking assist monitor and a powered sun roof.
The RAV4 X will be equipped with high performance run-flat tyres developed by Bridgestone. RAV4 is the world’s first SUV using this advanced tyre technology. These tyres use a unique steel ring that will support the weight of the vehicle and help wheel rotation following a puncture.
This system strong point is that the tyre wall does not have to be increased in thickness to achieve ‘run-flat’; thus retaining its original compliance and ride comfort.
The run-flat tyres on the RAV4 are guaranteed to be useable once punctured, over a range of 160km and at speeds up-to 90 km/h. To support the run-flat tyres and act as an additional safety factor, the RAV4 X is equipped with a tyre pressure warning system which instantly detects any deflation.
- D-4D Clean Power diesel technology
- Most powerful diesel in segment
- Latest development of 2.0-litre VVT-i
The Toyota RAV4 has a well-established reputation for offering great driving performance but the latest generation will extend this even further. In order to achieve these new levels of driving enjoyment, the all-new RAV4 offers a choice of three engines and two drive-trains – allowing customers to balance outright performance with excellent fuel consumption and
Headlining this engine line-up is the remarkable D-4D 180 engine which is the most powerful diesel in the compact SUV sector. Available in the premium RAV4 X, it enables customers to enjoy a top speed of 200 km/h and acceleration to 100 km/h in 9.3 seconds while achieving combined fuel consumption of 7.0 litres/100km. The D-4D 180 Clean Power engine boasts the smallest combined NOx and PM emissions for diesel engines in its segment.
But equally impressive are the other two engines available across the RAV4 range: the D-4D 135 diesel and the latest development 2.0 VVT-i petrol.
The D-4D range
- All aluminium cylinder block
- Low compression ratios
- Advanced variable nozzle turbochargers
The new Toyota RAV4 is the latest model in the Toyota line-up to be offered with the remarkable 2.2-litre D-4D engines. These engines have previously been seen in the Toyota Avensis and, since late 2005, in the Corolla Verso.
The new 2.2-litre D-4D engines available on RAV4 (D-4D 180 and D-4D 135) have the same common objectives: performance, fuel economy, reduced emissions and quietness. These objectives are achieved by combining the latest advances in Toyota diesel engine technology including third generation common-rail injection, all-aluminium construction and low
The development of the world’s first all-aluminium diesel engine (the 1.4-litre D-4D in the Yaris) has given Toyota considerable experience in replacing cast iron with aluminium for diesel engine blocks. For the new 2.2-litre D-4D engines, Toyota has adapted the aluminium block of the AZ petrol engine which also underpins the 2.0 VVT-i petrol engine found in the range.
The lightweight of the all-aluminium diesels helps to reduce fuel consumption and harmful emissions while, at the same time, lessening the effect of the engine weight on vehicle dynamics and creating better driving performance.
As a further weight reduction measure, the oil cooler is also entirely produced in aluminium and the water and oil pump, traditionally separate components, are fully integrated into the chain cover. Thanks to this, the oil pump is now 5% lighter and 20% more compact.
One of the key factors for the great efficiency and low noise levels of the new 2.2 D-4D engines is their low compression ratio. At 15.8:1, the 177 DIN hp 2.2 D-4D engine (D-4D 180) boasts the segment’s lowest compression ratio among production diesel engines. The 136 DIN hp (D-4D 135) version uses 16.8:1, a significantly low figure.
A lower compression ratio means the engine has to use less effort to compress the mixture, which means higher efficiency – more performance with lower fuel consumption.
Furthermore, by reducing the compression build-up inside the cylinder and combustion chamber, it is possible to reduce the noise and vibration caused by each explosion. Both engines feature variable nozzle turbo-chargers for maximum boost with good engine response and advanced intercoolers which have been subject to further continuous improvement.
For installation in the new RAV4 both engines feature a redesigned exhaust system with a compact silencer which allows for a lower, flatter underfloor. The main silencer mounting position has been changed to increase luggage space, enhance the rear appearance and reduce noise during idling.
The D-4D 180
- io Clean Power engine
- Most powerful diesel in segment
- Equipped with Toyota D-CAT
- Piezoelectric diesel injectors
- High performance, ceramic glow plugs
The D-4D 180 engine allows the new Toyota RAV4 X to truly express its active driving potential and challenge established models in the premium SUV sector. The unique combination of a low compression ratio and high boost turbocharger creates remarkable power output and engine efficiency.
A new, 32-bit processor is used in the Toyota Computer Controlled System (TCCS) for accurate, optimum and simultaneous control of the fuel injection, injection timing, ISC (Idle Speed Control), fuel pressure, glow relay, and EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) as well as air conditioning cut, thereby attaining high performance with excellent fuel economy.
The D-4D 180 is the most powerful diesel in the compact SUV segment with 130 kW (177 DIN hp) of power at 3,600 rpm and a remarkably flat torque delivery of 400 Nm across an engine range from 2,000 to 2,600 rpm. This enables the Toyota RAV4 X to reach 200km/h and accelerate to 100km/h in 9.3 seconds while delivering outstanding mid-gear acceleration for safe and enjoyable performance in real world driving conditions.
Fuel consumption is remarkably low for a driving experience of this type: just 7.0 litres/100km on the combined cycle.
The D-4D 180 is not only powerful, but clean thanks to Toyota’s advanced and unique Toyota D-CAT (Diesel Clean Advanced Technology), an emissions control technology which reduces NOx and particulate emissions at the same time. The technology allows the engine to pass strict EURO IV emission standards by greatly reducing hydrocarbons (HC), Carbon Monoxide
(CO), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) and Particular Matter (PM) emissions.
At the very heart of the Toyota D-CAT is Diesel Particulate NOx Reduction (DPNR); another pioneering technology by Toyota. By simultaneously and continuously reducing both PM and NOx in diesel exhaust gasses, DPNR transforms the diesel engine into a much cleaner power source, where all harmful emissions are reduced to very low levels.
Indeed, thanks to Toyota’s D-CAT, the D-4D 180 Clean Power engine boasts the smallest combined NOx and PM emissions for diesel engines in its segment. Most crucially, and unlike most particular filters found on the market, DPNR is maintenance-free.
The D-4D 180 Clean Power engine features piezoelectric injector technology which allows faster and more accurate fuel injection during the combustion cycle. Running up to pressures of 1,800 bar, the Toyota piezoelectric common-rail system can deliver up to five fuel injections per cycle resulting in greater efficiency and reduced engine noise due to lower combustion impact.
The engine has also been equipped with ceramic glow plugs. Their ability to withstand much higher temperatures allows the Toyota ceramic glow plug to maintain the same efficiency rates for a much longer period than conventional metallic glow plugs would allow.
Furthermore, the ceramic glow plugs are able to reach the ideal temperature quicker than metallic ones. This leads to more rapid cold starts at lower air temperature.
The D-4D 135
- Predicted to be best seller
- Balanced performance and fuel economy
- Reduced noise and vibration
Toyota RAV4 equipped with the D-4D 135 diesel is predicted to be the range’s best seller. It will be available across the model range and offers customers a remarkable combination of performance and economy.
Like the D-4D 180, this engine uses 32-bit processor technology for accurate and optimum control of main engine functions, leading to enhanced engine efficiency. With maximum power output of 100kW (136 DIN hp) this engine allows the new RAV4 to reach a top speed of 180 km/h and accelerate from 0 to 100 km/h in 10.5 seconds.
Maximum torque of 310 Nm over the engine range of 2,000 rpm to 2,800 rpm gives excellent mid-gear acceleration and flexible driving performance while preserving remarkable fuel economy. The Toyota RAV4 D-4D 135 combined fuel consumption is 6.6 litres/100km.
With its low compression ratio of 16.8:1, the D-4D 135 is one of the smoothest diesel engines on the market today. This is further enhanced by the adoption of scissor gear driven balancer shafts which improve acceleration feel, reduce engine vibration and reduce noise at high engine speeds. Combustion noise is also reduced, and throttle response improved, by the fitment of a rotary solenoid diesel throttle and a highly responsive, linear Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) valve control.
The high pressure, third generation, common-rail diesel injection runs at pressures up to 1,700 bar using highly robust solenoid injectors.
Six-speed manual transmission
- • Standard for diesel engines
- • Maximum performance and economy
- • Smooth, slick gear changes
The new Toyota RAV4 with 2.2-litre D-4D engines will come as standard with the latest Toyota six-speed manual transmission which boasts smooth, quick and precise gear-change. The six gear ratios have been carefully selected to allow drivers to make the most of the new performance available to them, while maintaining excellent fuel consumption.
A multi-cone synchroniser from first to fourth gears, which requires less force to manoeuvre, has contributed to the sense of smooth and more precise gear-shifting. A lever-type synchoniser ring for reverse gear also reduces the shift effort.
The three-shaft configuration, which consists of one input shaft and two output shafts and common use of the same drive gear for fourth and fifth, and first and reverse, achieves a compact yet high torque capacity gear train.
Six-speed manual transmission
The adoption of an oil separator, low-resistance bearings and low-viscosity gear oil has enhanced fuel economy.
Smooth VVT-i petrol engine
- Latest development of 2.0 petrol
- More advanced engine control
- Four speed automatic transmission available
For customers who prefer the smooth power delivery of a petrol engine, the new RAV4 is available with the latest development of the 2.0-litre VVT-i – also available in the current model range. The engine has been equipped with a more sophisticated engine control (notably by controlling the alternator generating voltage to reduce fuel consumption) and
CAN communication for superior diagnostics.
The 2.0-litre VVT-i is smooth and powerful, making use of Toyota’s VVT-i (Variable Valve Timing - intelligent) technology to boost low end power and reduce fuel consumption. In the new RAV4, the engine develops 112 kW (152 DIN hp) at 6,000 rpm and has maximum torque available of 194 Nm at 4,000rpm.
The new RAV4 2.0-litre VVT-i is available with the option of an advanced four-speed automatic gearbox as a replacement for the five-speed manual. This unit is compact with high response levels and a smooth shift feel. Particular attention has been paid to enhance fuel economy through the use of low friction technology.
Equipped with this engine, the RAV4 (with five speed manual transmission) is capable of a maximum speed of 185 km/h and will accelerate from 0 to 100 km/h in 10.6 seconds. The automatic transmission option offers 175 km/h and 0-100 in 12.0 seconds. Fuel consumption is 8.6 litres/100km (9.0 litres/100km for auto).
The gearbox controls uphill gear changes to reduce the frequency of gear shifting caused by operation of the accelerator pedal during winding uphill driving. It also allows for easier downhill driving by creating suitably engine braking when needed and reducing the need for the driver to brake during downhill driving.
- Integrated Active Drive System enhances performance, handling and safety
- World first in this segment
- Unobtrusive activation to improve driving experience
Executive Chief Engineer, Kiyotaka Ise says: “We envisaged an SUV that would fully utilise its four wheel drive capability to confidently navigate rough roads, grip slippery road surfaces and drive safely through winding mountain passes. To ensure superior stability and controllability, we have equipped the new Toyota RAV4 with Integrated Active Drive System – an advanced interactive management system to enhance performance, handling and safety.”
The Integrated Active Drive System is unique to the new Toyota RAV4 and another world first for this segment. It takes a set of individual technologies and combines them into a complete package via high-speed CAN communications.
The three elements of Integrated Active Drive System are the Active Torque Control 4WD system, the Vehicle Stability Control (VSC) and the Electric Power Steering (EPS).
Integrated Active Drive System
The interaction of all systems allows for real-time control that responds to driver operation and vehicle behaviour, resulting in enhanced running, turning and stopping performance.
The system monitors actual vehicle conditions through:
- Individual speed sensors for each of the 4 wheels, which monitor the vehicle’s speed.
- The yaw-rate sensor, which monitors the attitude of the vehicle, and acceleration and deceleration sensors fitted to both sides, front and back of the vehicle.
- The throttle sensor, crankshaft position sensor, brake pressure and pedal stroke sensor, steering angle sensor and steering torque sensor, which determine the degree of driver input and provide integrated control.
- And finally, the electric power steering actuator that provides steering torque assistance when needed
The input received from all the sensors allows the Integrated Active Drive System to determine any deviation from normal dynamics parameters and will automatically activate a coordinated counter-measure to maximise the performance and stability of the vehicle.
Active Torque Control 4WD
- Key element of Integrated Active Drive System
- Adjusts torque transfer front to rear
- Ensure optimum stability under all driving conditions
The Active Torque Control 4WD system continuously monitors and controls the torque transfer between the front and rear wheels.
The conventional centre differential has been removed and electronic sensors monitor information from throttle angle, engine torque and speed, gear ratio, vehicle speed and steering angle. The system allows the RAV4 to switch continuously between four-wheel drive and front-wheel drive mode, optimising stability under all driving conditions and reducing fuel consumption.
Using values calculated from the sensors, the Active Torque Control 4WD system allows torque switching from front to rear depending on the driving conditions. At ‘start-off’ maximum traction and acceleration is needed. The system automatically and seamlessly distributes the torque to both front and rear wheels in a ratio up to 55:45 (front: rear).
During ‘normal’ driving the system can switch from four-wheel drive to front wheel drive (100:0 torque distribution) to improve fuel consumption. But depending on the driving conditions, the torque distribution can then vary between 100:0 and 55:45. For example, during cornering, the appropriate torque (front to rear) is calculated by monitoring the yaw rate of the vehicle and, if necessary, applied to bring the vehicle back under control.
In addition to Active Torque Control, the driver has the option to lock the torque distribution to 55:45 using the 4WD Lock button on the dashboard. This enables the vehicle to get free if an individual wheel loses grip in, for example, off-road conditions. At the speed of 40kph or above, the system is automatically switched off.
Vehicle Stability Control (VSC)
- Second key element of Integrated Active Drive System
- Works with EPS to add steering torque assistance
- Helps driver input correct steering control
In most vehicles, the various elements of stability control (the anti-lock brakes, traction control, stability control and power steering) work independently of each other. Toyota’s VSC integrates these functions and then, itself, works with the Active Torque Control 4WD within the Integrated Active Drive System.
The VSC works with the electric power steering (EPS) to control, not only individual wheel speeds (as in a conventional VSC), but also to add steering torque assistance to help the driver correct a skid. It anticipates the occurrence of skidding, understeer or oversteer and assists the driver by making the correct steering action easier and the incorrect action more difficult.
Integrated Active Drive System – in action
The elements of Integrated Active Drive come together to provide remarkable stability and vehicle control under all conditions.
Braking or accelerating on a slippery road
Braking or accelerating in a straight line on a road with differing degrees of grip will cause a conventional vehicle to pull to one side. The Integrated Active Drive System detects the vehicle’s yaw and instantly applies the necessary controls to bring the vehicle back in a straight line.
These could include:
- adjustment of the engine output to reduce wheel spin
- braking of individual wheels to reduce wheel spin
- steering torque assist to help driver input correct steering angle
- torque transfer between front and rear to improve stability
In an oversteer situation, the rear of the vehicle starts to swing away from the line of cornering and the nose tends to tuck in. The Integrated Active Drive System will sense that the vehicle is about to slide and will apply the necessary controls to bring it back into line:
- adjustment of the engine output
- independent braking to appropriate wheels to adjust line
- steering wheel torque assist will be applied in the counter-steering (opposite lock) direction to help driver input correct steering angle
- torque transfer to the front wheels to improve stability.
The Integrated Active Drive System will adjust the torque transfer depending on the extent of the oversteer. In small oversteer (or at the start of a skid) the drive torque can vary between100:0 and 55:45 (depending on driver’s throttle operation) for stability and acceleration out of the situation. As the oversteer increases the torque can fully be transferred to the front (100:0) for greater stability.
In an understeer situation, the nose of the vehicle starts to drift away from the line of cornering and the vehicle tends to run wide. The Integrated Active Drive System will sense that the vehicle is about to slide and will apply the necessary controls to bring it back into line:
- adjustment of the engine output
- independent braking to appropriate wheels to adjust line
- steering torque assist to help driver input correct steering angle.
- torque transfer to the rear wheel to improve stability. Once again, the Integrated Active
Hill-start Assist Control (HAC)
The driver has additional control of the RAV4 on slippery or difficult hill-start conditions with the fitment of a new assist control. This prevents the vehicle from slipping back when the parking brake is off and is now available on both manual and automatic transmission models.
Hill-start Assist Control can even operate in reverse gear (preventing slip forwards). Hill-start Assist Control operates when the RAV4 is stopped on a slope with the handbrake off. Extra pressure on the brake pedal by the driver applies hydraulic pressure to the wheel brakes and holds them on for a maximum of two seconds – sufficient to allow the vehicle to move off.
A buzzer sounds to warn the driver the Hill-start Assist Control system has been operated and indicator lights operate. The brakes come off as soon as the accelerator is depressed, if the brake pedal is depressed again or if the two second time limit is reached.
Downhill Assist Control (DAC)
Versions of the new RAV4 equipped with automatic transmission also receive Downhill Assist Control (DAC). During a steep descent, the engine brake alone may not be sufficient to reduce speed even when the automatic transaxle shift lever is in the low range. DAC assists the driver by automatically applying appropriate hydraulic pressure to the brakes in order to maintain a constant low speed, without locking the wheels. This allows the driver to concentrate on steering the vehicle.
Even more driving pleasure
- Premium quality ride and handling
- All new suspension design
- Low levels of noise and vibration
- Precise, responsive steering
The third-generation Toyota RAV4 sets out to deliver excellent driving pleasure – not just through its active performance, including some of the most technically advanced and powerful engines in the segment, but also through its all-new chassis and suspension design.
“The new RAV4 is designed for driving pleasure in a way that will differentiate it from other compact SUVs.” says Executive Chief Engineer, Kiyotaka Ise. “We focused on performance characteristics, including cornering performance, that enable the driver to feel fully confident with the vehicle, and give sure-footed stability regardless of the surface of the road. We are sure the performance of the new RAV4 chassis enables the driver to feel connected with the road while, at
the same time, we have been able to efficiently minimise noise and vibration.”
A key factor in this driving pleasure is the all-new front and rear suspension, designed to optimise handling and enhance stability while, at the same time, offering excellent standards of passenger comfort and ride.
After initial design work was completed, the early RAV4 prototypes were brought to Europe for on road conformity testing and suspension fine tuning. “Because we had ensured high levels of driving pleasure from the initial design stage, on road
tuning was extremely successful,” says Kiyotaka Ise. “The result of the joint effort is precise handling, excellent driving stability and superior ride comfort.”
All-new front suspension
- Redesigned for maximum stability
- Improved ride and comfort
- New top mount structure
- Reduced weight
The front suspension utilises an enhanced McPherson strut design that has been engineered for significant weight reduction and improved passenger comfort. This has resulted in a complete redesign from the lower arm to the coils springs and shock absorbers.
The top of the suspension strut features an input separation structure that effectively reduces shock transmission through to the bodyshell, resulting in excellent NVH performance and improved ride comfort. This separation structure ensures that shock input from the coil spring is transmitted via the strut bearing; while input from the shock absorber and bump stop is transmitted via the upper support.
The suspension geometry has been optimised to give excellent straight line stability and good cornering ability. The lower ball joints on the bottom arm have been moved forward to increase the caster angles – promoting understeer against the lateral forces during cornering. At the same time, the roll centre height has been reduced to improve straight ahead driving stability.
Both ends of the coil springs have been shaped to reduce size and weight. The anti-roll bar is hollow – which again reduces weight and ensures high roll rigidity.
Compact, accurate rear suspension
- Excellent straight line stability
- Good cornering performance
- Extra luggage space in boot
The rear suspension is unique to RAV4 and utilises a newly-developed independent double wishbone and trailing arm. This gives excellent vehicle stability in straight line with rollstiffness optimised for good performance under cornering.
There has been an emphasis on weight reduction below the spring (unsprung weight) with high tensile steel stamping used on the trailing arm and wishbones. This improves ride comfort. Rear shock absorbers are mounted diagonally under the boot floor, allowing for a 230mm increase in width in the luggage space.
The combination of a new platform and a new suspension layout achieves excellent riding comfort and handling performance, enhancing the “fun-to-drive” image of the RAV4.
Precise steering response
- Latest generation Electric Power Steering (EPS)
- Less maintenance, more fuel efficient
- Precise steering feel and response
- Low turning circle
Extra driving pleasure of the third generation RAV4 is created through the precise steering response, allowing the driver to feel in control with the vehicle at all times. The new RAV4 uses a high response, mechanical rack and pinion with a newly-developed electric power steering (EPS) system, mounted on the steering column. A high efficiency, brushless electric motor applies torque to the column to reduce steering effort. The amount of torque is varied according to vehicle speed – resulting in easy but precise steering effort and excellent steering response.
The Electric Power Steering is significantly more efficient than older, hydraulic systems and requires less maintenance. Adopting EPS has created a compact, environmentally-friendly system while also enhancing fuel economy. The agility and response of the new RAV4 is highlighted by its tight turning circle (often an issue for customers with SUVs). Despite its increased overall length the new RAV4 will now turn in a 5.1 metre circle.
Low noise and vibration
- Premium quality comfort for passengers
- Rigid structure for low vibration
- Extra noise insulation under bonnet
- Class-leading aerodynamics
Passenger comfort and driving pleasure is further enhanced by the low levels of noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) which set the new RAV4 apart in the compact SUV segment as a true premium product.
The adoption of a rigid platform and strong, high tensile steel sheet for the major body panels ensures a light but stiff structure which reduces vibration. Carefully engineered suspension top mounts and engine mounts further reduce shock and vibration through the body structures.
Noise insulating material is placed at key points throughout the bodyshell structure. The engine undercover features a cell-structure noise insulator while the floor pan is treated with an anti-vibration coating. Particular attention has been paid to the bonnet in order to reduce transmission of engine noise, not only for the passengers but also from outside the vehicle. A double-layer underbonnet insulator is made more effective by extra side seals placed at the edges of the engine compartment. There is further insulation across the top of the cowl at the rear of the engine compartment.
The windscreen features acoustic glass which helps absorb noise while there is an anti-vibration channel in the front door glass frame and extra weatherstrips around the door frames.
Noise reduction is further enhanced by the class-leading aerodynamics (see design chapter) of the third generation RAV4 which contribute to better fuel consumption, better high speed stability and lower wind noise levels. Tight panel fit around key body gaps ensures smooth airflow over the body and every detail, such as the uni-blade windscreen wiper, has been designed with aerodynamics in mind.
These physical noise reduction methods, combined with the advanced engineering of the RAV4’s engines, make it hard for passengers to distinguish between the petrol and diesel power plants – while enjoying a comfortable and relaxing journey over short or long distances.
- Maximum focus on safety systems
- Impact absorbing body structure
- Designed to reduce pedestrian injury
- Nine airbags, including driver’s knee
Active and passive safety is a key feature of the all-new Toyota RAV4 and special emphasis has been placed on creating a safe environment for both vehicle occupants and other road users. This is especially important for RAV4’s core target customers who have young families and who lead urban, active lifestyles.
Specific measures include the development of a new impact-absorbing chassis with minimal cabin deformation in the event of an accident and a comprehensive SRS airbag package including, for the first time in this segment, driver’s knee airbag. Toyota is confident of achieving class-leading EuroNCAP results for occupant protection. There has also been a particular emphasis on management of pedestrian safety to minimise injuries in the event of a collision with a pedestrian.
- New concept for impact from every direction
- Crumple zones to absorb energy
- Passenger structure resists deformation
There was extensive use of Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) to develop a body structure that balances the apparently conflicting targets of lightweight design, body rigidity and crash safety performance.
Executive Chief Engineer, Kiyotaka Ise, says: “It took more time than we initially expected to create a structure with the optimum balance of crash safety and strength. However, our work paid off. We are proud to say we are able to achieve crash safety that is at a top level in this class, as a result of our extensive analysis, confirmation and evaluation work.”
The all-new RAV4 has been designed around a ‘compatibility concept’ that takes account of possible impact from all directions - front, side and rear – and of impact with vehicles of all different shapes and sizes. The new RAV4 has been developed according to Toyota’s own, more stringent, car-to-car compatibility crash-test standards: 55km/h frontal and side collision (instead of 50km/h). Of particular note is the rear safety study which takes account of possible high speed, offset impacts from behind.
Cabin deformation is minimised by the careful design and layout of the underbody structure to absorb impact in the event of front, side or rear collision. The engine compartment features a ‘crumple zone’ which absorbs energy from the impact and then channels loads down the side members and into other reinforcements.
The passenger cabin itself is a more rigid structure deigned to resist deformation and protect the occupants. Lateral cross-members are tied to the side members to create a strong frame and these cross members also help protect occupants in the event of a side impact.
The centre (B) pillar is reinforced with 590MPa tensile steel to take impact loads away from the occupants and up into several roof panel cross members. Within the passenger cell there is widespread use of energy absorbing trim to reduce the effect of occupant impact on the pillars or doors. Energy absorbing material is placed within the door pillars and the roof rails, and within the front and rear door trims. With typical attention to detail, even the thickness of the armrest surface has been reduced to enhance its energy absorption characteristics.
Safer for pedestrians
- Energy absorbing zones in frontal design
- Radiator moved back
- Bonnet lock moved and redesigned
The third generation Toyota RAV4 has been styled and engineered with pedestrian safety as a priority, in keeping with its role as a family car on Europe’s increasingly crowded urban streets.
Toyota is confident the new RAV4 will achieve high ratings in this area in EuroNCAP testing. Executive Chief Engineer, Kiyotaka Ise, explains: “The shape of the bonnet, grills, lamps and bumpers are of particular concern when dealing with pedestrian safety measures; so we made certain that there was close contact between designers and safety engineers in these areas. We implemented multiple studies and testing. As a result, we were able to design contours that sufficiently ensure pedestrian safety while achieving our modern, rugged design.”
Management of pedestrian safety requires the creation of energy absorbing zones around the front bumper and wings. There also needs to be energy absorbing space between the bonnet and the top of the engine.
The new RAV4 utilises energy absorbing brackets in the front wing mountings and an energy absorbing bar on the bottom on the radiator mount (below the bumper) to reduce the likely impact on pedestrians. The radiator has been moved backwards to create extra space behind the bumper and the headlamps have been designed to collapse backwards in the event of a
The bonnet itself has been redesigned to be a deformable structure and the area around the bonnet lock features crash-absorbing reinforcements and a crumple zone. The lock itself has been moved further back, away from the likely area of pedestrian impact.
At the rear edge of the bonnet, the cowl has an open cross-section structure that allows its underside to crumple. The wiper motor and wiper link arms have been redesigned to reduce possible injuries to pedestrians.
Safer for occupants
- Available with nine SRS airbags
- Segment first, driver’s knee airbag
- Whiplash Injury Lessening (WIL) seats
The new Toyota RAV4 is available with a comprehensive SRS airbag system with no fewer than nine airbags. These include dual stage SRS driver and passenger airbags, SRS side airbags, SRS curtain shield airbags across the front and rear windows, and, for the first time in this segment, a driver’s knee airbag.
This deploys from the lower part of the instrument panel to reduce injury from contact with the steering column and lower dashboard structures. At the same time, it helps to reduce head and chest injuries by reducing the pelvis displacement and rotation of the torso in a major impact.
A manual cut-off switch is provided for the front passenger airbag to cancel airbag deployment when a child seat is being used. Full three-point seat belts and headrests are available for all five occupants and front seatbelts feature pre-tensioners with force limiters to control stresses on the upper body. There is a seatbelt warning system with buzzer for both front passengers.
Both front seats are second generation ‘Whiplash Injury Lessening’ (WIL) concept with headrests and seat back designed to move forward in the event of a rear collision. The two outer rear seats are equipped with ISOFix brackets for fitment of child seats and there is a top tether point in the boot.
Built to last
- Galvanised steel bodyshell
- Anti-chip coatings applied
- Comprehensive warranty
The body structure of the new Toyota RAV4 is highly rigid for maximum strength and durability. It is also built to last.
All the major body panels now used galvanised steel for enhanced anti-corrosion performance and over 80% of the body weight is rustproof metal. Wax is injected into closed outer panels, such as the bonnet, front door and rear door, to enhance rustproofing.
At the same time, anti-chip coating is applied to the front edge of the bonnet, the lower door sills and the front edge of the wheel arches. The new Toyota RAV4 will be supplied with a comprehensive, pan-European warranty including three years, 100,000 km mechanical warranty; three years paint warranty and 12 years anti-perforation warranty.